What is Powder Metallurgy, Sinter Metals, Powdered Metals?
Powder metallurgy includes milling and products. Among them, pulverization is mainly a metallurgical process, which is consistent with the literal. The powder metallurgy products often go far beyond the scope of materials and metallurgy, and are often cross-disciplinary (materials and metallurgy, machinery and mechanics, etc.) technology. Especially modern metal powder 3D printing, which integrates mechanical engineering, CAD, reverse engineering technology, layered manufacturing technology, numerical control technology, material science, and laser technology, makes powder metallurgy products technology a modern comprehensive technology that spans more disciplines.
Powder metallurgy is an industrial technology for preparing metal powder or using metal powder (or a mixture of metal powder and non-metal powder) as raw materials, forming and sintering, to produce metal materials, composite materials and various types of products. At present, powder metallurgy technology has been widely used in the fields of transportation, machinery, electronics, aerospace, weapons, biology, new energy, information and nuclear industry, and has become one of the most dynamic branches of new materials science. Powder metallurgy technology has a series of advantages such as significant energy saving, material saving, excellent performance, high product precision and good stability, which is very suitable for mass production. In addition, some materials and complex parts that cannot be prepared by traditional casting methods and mechanical processing methods can also be manufactured by powder metallurgy technology, which has attracted the attention of the industry.
The powder metallurgy products industry in a broad sense includes iron and stone tools, cemented carbide, magnetic materials and powder metallurgy products. The powder metallurgy products industry in the narrow sense only refers to powder metallurgy products, including powder metallurgy parts (most of them), oil-bearing bearings and metal injection molding products.
Powder metallurgy has unique chemical composition and mechanical and physical properties, and these properties cannot be obtained by traditional melting and casting methods. The use of powder metallurgy technology can directly produce porous, semi-dense or fully dense materials and products, such as oil-bearing bearings, gears, cams, guide rods, cutting tools, etc., which is a rare cutting process.
(1) Powder metallurgy technology can minimize the segregation of alloy components and eliminate coarse and uneven casting structures. In the preparation of high-performance rare earth permanent magnet materials, rare earth hydrogen storage materials, rare earth luminescent materials, rare earth catalysts, high temperature superconducting materials, new metal materials (such as Al-Li alloys, heat-resistant Al alloys, super alloys, powder corrosion-resistant stainless steel, powder High-speed steel, intermetallic compounds, high-temperature structural materials, etc.) play an important role.
(2) A series of high-performance non-equilibrium materials, such as amorphous, microcrystalline, quasicrystalline, nanocrystalline and supersaturated solid solution, can be prepared. These materials have excellent electrical, magnetic, optical and mechanical properties.
(3) It can easily realize multiple types of composites and give full play to the respective characteristics of each component material. It is a process technology for low-cost production of high-performance metal matrix and ceramic composite materials.
(4) It can produce materials and products with special structures and properties that cannot be produced by ordinary smelting methods, such as new porous biological materials, porous separation membrane materials, high-performance structural ceramic abrasive tools and functional ceramic materials.
(5) Near-net formation and automated mass production can be realized, thereby effectively reducing the resource and energy consumption of production.
(6) It can make full use of ore, tailings, steelmaking sludge, rolling steel scale, and recycling scrap metals as raw materials. It is a new technology that can effectively regenerate and comprehensively utilize materials.
Many of our common machining tools and metal abrasives are manufactured by powder metallurgy technology.
(1) Production of powder. The powder production process includes steps such as powder preparation and powder mixing. In order to improve the moldability and plasticity of the powder, plasticizers such as engine oil, rubber or paraffin are usually added.
(2) Compression molding. The powder is pressed into the required shape under the pressure of 15-600MPa.
(3) Sintering. It is carried out in a high-temperature furnace or vacuum furnace with a protective atmosphere. Sintering is different from metal melting, at least one element is still in the solid state during sintering. During the sintering process, powder particles undergo a series of physical and chemical processes such as diffusion, recrystallization, fusion welding, compounding, and dissolution, and become metallurgical products with a certain degree of porosity.
(4) Post-processing. Under normal circumstances, the sintered parts can be used directly. But for some parts that require high precision, high hardness and wear resistance, post-sintering treatment is required. Post-processing includes precision pressing, rolling, extrusion, quenching, surface quenching, oil immersion, and infiltration, etc.
Powder metallurgy-related companies are mainly suitable for the production and research of parts and accessories in the automotive industry, equipment manufacturing, metal industry, aerospace, military industry, instrumentation, hardware tools, electronic appliances and other fields, production of related raw materials, auxiliary materials, and various powders Manufacturing equipment and sintering equipment. Products include bearings, gears, carbide tools, molds, friction products and so on. In military industrial enterprises, heavy weapons and equipment such as armor-piercing bombs, torpedoes, etc., aircraft tanks and other brake pairs need to be produced by powder metallurgy technology. Powder metallurgy auto parts have become the largest market in China's powder metallurgy industry in recent years, and about 50% of auto parts are powder metallurgy parts.
(1) Application: (automobiles, motorcycles, textile machinery, industrial sewing machines, power tools, hardware tools, electrical appliances, engineering machinery, etc.) various powder metallurgy (iron-copper-based) parts.
(2) Classification: powder metallurgy porous materials, powder metallurgy antifriction materials, powder metallurgy friction materials, powder metallurgy structural parts, powder metallurgy tool and die materials, and powder metallurgy electromagnetic materials and powder metallurgy high temperature materials.
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